Dengue Fever
Dengue Fever
Dengue is a form of fever (disease) caused by one type of virus which is being carried by mosquitoes. This virus is transmitted to the humans.

History:
The origin of the word “dengue” comes from the Swahili phrase ka-dinga pepo that describes the illness is being caused by Associate in Nursing disembodied spirit. The Swahili word Dinga had its origin from the Spanish word breakbone fever, that means fastidious or careful which might describe the gait of someone suffering the bone pain of dengue. The term Break Bone Fever was applied by MD in 1789 report from the Philadelphia epidemic. He used the name “bilious remitting fever”. Dengue started being used in 1828. The primary record of a case of probable dengue is in an exceedingly Chinese medical cyclopedia from Jin folk (265-420 AD) that brought up a “water poison” related to flying insects. In 1906, genus Aedes mosquitoes transmittal the dengue was confirmed and in 1907 dengue was the second disease next to “yellow fever” that was shown to be caused by a virus. Hemorrhagic fever is initial reportable in Philippines in 1953, and in 1981 in South America.

Description:
The virus which causes dengue fever is also known as arbovirus, which is a name for arthropod-borne virus. Mosquitoes are a type of arthropod. Across the globe mosquitoes are responsible to carry this virus and are passing it along to humans. These globe effected by them is the Middle East, the far East, Africa, and the Caribbean Islands. In these locations, the dengue fever arbovirus is endemic, which means the virus lives naturally in that location and constantly. To understand better how dengue is transmitted, there are a few terms you must be defined. The word "host" means an animal or human which can be infected with dengue virus. The other term is vector which carries disease causing agent (Virus and bacteria) in this case Mosquito but they don’t develop the disease. A Vector can pass the disease to new host.

Causes and Symptoms:
Dengue is caused only if a mosquito carrying the arbovirus bites a human, passing the virus on new host. Once the virus is in body, the virus travels to different glands of body where they multiply. After that it gets into blood stream. The presence of the virus inside the blood vessels, particularly those feeding the skin, causes changes to those blood vessels. The vessels swell and leak. The spleen and body fluid nodes become enlarged, and patches of liver tissue die. A method known as disseminated intravascular curdling (DIC) happens, wherever chemicals answerable for natural action are burnt up and result in a risk of severe bleeding (hemorrhage).

After the virus has been transmitted to the human host, an amount of incubation happens. Throughout this time (lasting concerning 5 to eight days) the virus multiplies.

Symptoms of the disease:
  • Pain areas: in the abdomen, back, back of the eyes, bones, joints, or muscles.
  • Whole body: chills, fatigue, fever, or loss of appetite.
  • Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting.
  • Skin: rashes or red spots.
  • Also common: bleeding, easy bruising, headache, or sore throat.
This initial period of illness lasts about two or three days. After this time, the fever drops rapidly and the patient sweats heavily. After about a day of feeling relatively well, the patient's temperature increases again, although not as much as the first time. A rash of small red bumps begins on the arms and legs, spreading to the chest, abdomen, and back. It rarely affects the face. The palms of the hands and the soles of the feet become swollen and turn bright red. The characteristic combination of fever, rash, and headache are called the "dengue triad." Most people recover fully from dengue fever, although weakness and fatigue may last for several weeks. Once a person has been infected with dengue fever, his or her immune system keeps producing cells that prevent reinfection for about a year.

How to Treat Dengue Fever:
  • Tell patients to drink lots of fluids and find lots of rest.
  • Tell patients to require antipyretics to regulate their temperature. Kids with infectious disease are in danger for feverish seizures throughout the feverish section of health problem.
  • Warn patients to avoid salicylate and different nonsteroidal, medicinal drug medications as a result they increase the chance of hemorrhage.
  •  Monitor your patients’ association standing throughout the feverish section of health problem. Educate patients and fogeys concerning the signs of dehydration and have them monitor their piddle output.
  • If patients cannot tolerate fluids orally, they will would like IV fluids. Assess hemodynamic standing by checking the patient’s rate, capillary refill, pulse pressure, vital sign, and piddle output.
  • Perform hemodynamic assessments, baseline hematocrit testing, and protoplasm counts.
  • Continue to observe your patients closely throughout hiatus. The vital section of infectious disease begins with hiatus and lasts 24–48 hour